Monday, August 24, 2020
The Title IX Decision against the Quinnipiac University The topic of sexual orientation is effectively talked about corresponding to brandish with references to giving the equivalent chances to female competitors. As per Title IX, any segregation with respect to the sex or sex issues is denied (Thornton, 2010). The Title IX Decision against the Quinnipiac University of 2010 got one of the most dubious cases related with the question.Advertising We will compose a custom exposition test on The Title IX Decision against the Quinnipiac University explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More It was expressed that the Quinnipiac University proposed to dispense with the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s varsity volleyball crew on account of the absence of subsidizing and to build up a serious cheerleading group. The volleyball teamÃ¢â¬â¢s players and their mentor demanded investigating the case in court as a result of disregarding Title IX corresponding to giving the equivalent chances to college competitors. As indicated by the directive gave by the J udge Stefan Underhill, the volleyball crew was permitted to proceed with the exercises during the following season when the advancement of the serious cheerleading group couldn't be talked about as the option in contrast to the female game group to meet the Title IX prerequisites. To assess the viability of UnderhillÃ¢â¬â¢s choice, it is important to focus on the subtleties of the case. The volleyball crew of the Quinnipiac University and the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s mentor emphasizd that the arrangement to dispose of the group damages Title IX in light of the fact that the extent of the male and female competitors would be challenged. Starting here, it is conceivable to talk about the immediate infringement of Title IX corresponding to giving the equivalent chances to male and female competitors. Underhill expressed that the reality of separating female athletesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights was introduced, and the Quinnipiac University was obliged to give the chances to the group to perform during the fo llowing season (The Quinnipiac University Case, 2010). Accordingly, the legitimate quality of the contention was emphasizd, and the group could be examined as winning the case. In any case, there are two dreams of the choice. From one perspective, the rights and interests of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s varsity volleyball crew were met, and the reality of segregation was expressed. Then again, the group was permitted to perform just during the 2010-2011 season, and the inquiry was talked about again in 2012. Along these lines, the choice gave by the appointed authority came up short on some details.Advertising Looking for paper on wellbeing medication? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, Underhill focused on the way that it was difficult to allude to the cheerleading group as the serious group and to examine that group as the option in contrast to the volleyball crew to meet the Title IX prerequisites. The choice gave by Und erhill was somewhat powerful while talking about the cheerleading group as improper option in contrast to the female volleyball crew. All things considered, the debate was related with the way that Underhill concentrated on the gauges of the serious game groups and decided about the importance of the principles and cheerleading teamÃ¢â¬â¢s highlights to talk about it as the game group. Underhill bolstered the choice according to the meaning of the varsity sport with references to the Title IX gauges (The Quinnipiac University Case, 2010). It is essential to focus on the way that the situation of the appointed authority as the counsel or a specialist to decide the norms for the varsity sport is somewhat questionable, and it could be increasingly viable to concentrate on disregarding the Title IX prerequisites with respect to the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s volleyball crew as opposed to on examining the highlights and measures of the varsity sport. Notwithstanding the general win of the womenÃ¢â ¬â¢s volleyball crew of the Quinnipiac University corresponding to Title IX, the judgeÃ¢â¬â¢s contention can't be talked about as solid and powerful on the grounds that it was critical to focus on the issue of separation to decide the situation of the group for one season as well as for the extensive stretch of time. References The Quinnipiac University Case. (2010). Recovered from http://courtweb.pamd.uscourts.gov/courtwebsearch/ctxc/KX330R32.pdf Thornton, P. K. (2010). Sports law. USA: Jones Bartlett Publishers.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa) The Brazil Nut is the product of a tree that becomes for the most part wild in rainforests. Castanheiro do Para, which is the Brazilian name given to this tree, is found in numerous Amazonian conditions of Brazil, Peru, Columbia, Venezuela and Ecudor. It is most pervalent in the Brazilian conditions of Marahao, Mato Grosso, Acre, Para, Rondonia, and the Amazonas. The tree is tremendous, Frequently accomplishing the tallness of 160 feet or more. The organic product is a huge circular woody case or case and measures a normal of six crawls in breadth and can weigh as much as 5 pounds. The natural product units develop at the parts of the bargains, at that point ages and tumbles from the tree from January to June. Inside each organic product case is 12 to 25 Brazil nuts with their own indvidual shell(1). Brazil nuts are reaped at ranches and in nature. Manors are being created in different pieces of the Amazon. Fazenda Aruana is the proprietor of a 12,000 hectare previous steers farm, halfway changed over to a Brazil Nut ranch in 1980. By January of 1990, 318,660 Brazil nut trees were planted on 3341 hectares of land. Fazenda's unique purpose was to plant Brazil Nut trees in a 20 by 20 meter matrices and permit steers touching between the trees. The trees in the Aruana manor are the aftereffect of uniting high return clones from the locale of Abufari Amazonas were Brazil nuts are know for their huge products of the soil. Because of preparation from similar clones, the organic product creation among clones has been low(2). Another risk in utilizing scarcely any clones is the capacity to oppose assault of illness and creepy crawlies. The greater part of the Brazil nuts that are reaped are done as such in nature. They are collected during a five to half year time span in the stormy season. The natural products, witch weigh from .5 to 2.5 kilograms and contain ten to twenty five seeds, are accumulated following they fall. This limits the opportunity of creepy crawly or parasitic assault on seeds. Brazil nuts are likewise diverted by creatures. The quantity of units can go structure 63 to 216 for every tree(). A large portion of the units accumulated in the wild are sent down waterway to handling plants were they are opened out of the case and bundled. The brazil nut majorly affects neighborhood Amazonian economies. The numbers on absolute creation are evaluates because of the reality figures are difficult to get from the Amazon.
Sunday, July 19, 2020
A Holistic View on DBMS / Database Technologies Data is at the centre of most of todayâs businesses and companies must pay close attention to how they store, access and use data. One of the systems at the heart of current data management is a database management system.But as with most technology products out there, people have the ability to choose from a wide range of database technologies and systems. Picking the most convenient and relevant for your business can be difficult. © Shutterstock.com | Bakhtiar ZeinThis guide will explain what database management systems are and what are the benefits of using one. Weâll also explain some of the most common distinctions between these technologies and provide a few tips on how to select the best system for your business.INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSWhat are database management systems (DBMS)? First, itâs good to understand the different components of DBMSs. At the core of a DBMS is a database, which is essentially an organized collection of data. The data in the database is modeled in a manner, which helps support processes that seek information.Creating a database is simple, but you also need to be able to use the database for different functions. This is where database management systems come into play.A DBMS is a computer software application, which helps to interact with the user of the database, different applications, as well the database itself in order to gather and analyze data. A DBMS allows interaction with the data, whether it is to create, analyze, delete or change the data within a database.While the basic function of DBMSs are essentially the same, there are certain distinctions between different solutions. Therefore, DBMSs are often further categorized into separate groups based on:the model they support,the type of device they run on,the language they use to access the database,the internal engineering of the software.What do database management systems do?Understanding the idea behind database management systems is easier if you understand the use of these systems. The DBMS provides users four core functions. These are the ability to create, retrieve, update and manage data. These functions are enabled by the way in which a DBMS helps manage three core aspects:the data,the database engine, which allows data to be accessed, locked and modified,the database schema, which defines the logical structure of the database.Management of these foundational element s allows DBMSs to perform different procedures related to the four core functions mentioned above. With a DBMS, users can perform a variety of actions including:Data managementData definitionTransaction supportCurrency controlRecoveryFacilities to import and export dataUser managementBackupPerformance analysisIn essence, a DBMS provides users a centralized view of data. For example, businesses might use a DBMS to collect information on customers, but also for operational purposes such as accounting. As weâll see in the section below, this can have many benefits.Examples of DBMSsWeâll be looking at different database technologies later on in the guide, but itâs helpful to mention some known examples of DBMSs. Well-known DBMSs include applications like:MySQLPostgreSQLOracleSybaseIBM DB2Check out the YouTube video below to understand the basics of DBMSs: WHY DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ARE IMPORTANT?As the above shows, a DBMS can have a number of functions. The complexity of thes e systems has evolved and in general, the software is often divided into two main categories: the general-purpose DBMSs and the special-purpose DBMS. Since DBMSs can conduct complex tasks or perform more specified roles, countless groups of people benefit from them.Typical database management system users include:Database administratorsDatabase designersApplication programmersEnd usersYet, it would be too easy to simply write-off DBMSs as software only IT-personnel need to use. There are huge benefits to using DBMS technologies, which means understanding the different systems is crucial for any business person or individual working with data.The benefits of database management systemsPerhaps the most crucial advantage of DBMSs is how it allows the end users of the application, as well as the programmers, to access and use the same data. More importantly, this happens without jeopardizing data integrity. A DBMS provides data independence; it offers flexible access to data and guarant ees access without forcing the user to necessarily understand where the data is located. To users, this kind of data independence can remove the concern over any possible changes to the structure of data.A business could easily add new information to the database, as its operations develop and change, without disruption of the existing system. Data loss or operational problems will be limited by using a DBMS.A DBMS can also enhance the integrity and security of the data. Since itâs possible to allow different levels of access to the same data, the data wonât be easily compromised. As most DBMSs also mean data is located in a physically different location from the user, the security of the data increases further.In addition, the core functions include tasks such as backup and recovery of the data. This guarantees data isnât jeopardized while itâs being accessed and modified. Overall, it ensures uniform administration procedures for data.Finally, it must be mentioned that sinc e DBMSs can be operated remotely, itâs possible to outsource data administration. This can be especially useful for small businesses, which might not have the resources to conduct data administration themselves.TYPES OF DATABASE TECHNOLOGIESAs mentioned briefly above, there are different database technologies. Each technology offers its own pros and cons and below is a look at some of the most common technologies.Single- vs. multi-file databasesA notable difference between technologies can be whether they are single-file or multi-file databases.Single-file databaseA single-file database is the simplest database structure, as it consists of unified information, which can often be used and accessed in a pre-determined manner. Complexity in a single-file database is not commonplace.While this type of technology can provide benefits to narrowly defined data, which organizes in a limited manner, it can offer limited possibilities for use when dealing with large sets of data. For exampl e, different single-file databases donât interact with each other, even though they might consists of the same information. Therefore, when you update one database, your other databases wonât automatically include these changes and could thus contain wrong information. Single-file databases must also be all in the same location, which can cause difficulties in storage and increase the security risk of the data.Multi-file databaseAs weâve increased collection of data, the complexity of data has also risen. Much of the data we use is not in the above, unified format. A multi-file database links different data formats together and allows a more flexible way of organizing and using data. It provides users with the ability to link between different data sets and make sense of them.Furthermore, a multi-file database provides the advantage of splitting the database and using it from different locations. This provides the technical advantage of speed, as multiple users can access the information quicker than if it was located in the same physical location or disk.Relational vs. non-relational databasesAs the above distinction might have shown, a majority of todayâs DBMSs are multi-file databases. But these can be further organised in a different manner. One of the most common options to choose between is relational vs. non-relational databases.Relational databaseThe most basic model for DBMSs is the relational database model, often referred to as RDBMS. This means that the multi-file databases mentioned above, are linked together and data from separate files can be used and accessed from different locations.The strengths of this model are similar to the strengths of DBMSs. The relational database structure is flexible and reliable. Since itâs such an established technology, the costs and risks associated with it are small.Nonetheless, there are weaknesses to RDBMSs, with the majority of them relating to specific performance issues. Relational models require pre-determined formats, which can limit the complexity and often result in issues if information is added with a different format. Thereâs also lack of support for complex base types, such as drawings.Note that the common relational databases are often referred to as SQL databases. The SQL refers to the programming language (Structured Query Language) and many RDBMSs, such as Oracle and MySQL, use this language for creating and processing databases.Non-relational databaseThe opposite of a relational database is a non-relational database. Since relational databases are often referred to by their programming language, SQL, the non-relational databases are known as NoSQL databases.These models are designed to bypass the problem of accessing data, which is not typically structured in a standard model. It therefore provides more scalability and flexibility to relational databases. In fact, non-relational databases can often be stored in a single-file format, because the databases are d ocument-oriented rather than structured.Non-relational technologies allow the use of non-structured data, such as videos, or photos. These datasets can be categorized in a number of ways, with pre-determined fields.The downside is that this kind of database categorization requires extra processing power. The requirements of the technology can add a strain, not only for the physical requirements, but also for the cost effectiveness of the system.Centralized vs. distributed databasesDatabases can also be stored in different manners. The most common distinction between different ways database systems are organized is between centralized and distributed databases.Centralized databaseDatabases were typically centralized, which means stored, located and maintained in a single location. In the past, this was due to the technological limitations of computers. Under this approach, the data can be accessed from different places, but the data itself is stored in a central computer or database, in a single database file.Centralized databases benefit from enhanced data integrity and minimized data redundancy, since the data is only found in a single location thereâs only one primary market of it. Securing this database can be easier, as you only need to secure the single data location. Overall, the maintenance cost of the data is minimized.On the other hand, the database access relies quite heavily on network connectivity. Since the data is only stored in a single location, problems in access can result in total loss of data access. Naturally, faults in storage could potentially lead to full loss of data, which could be catastrophic for businesses.Distributed databaseTo counter some of the problems with centralized databases, distributed databases have become a popular option. In these systems, the data is stored in multiple physical locations. Furthermore, the distributed databases can be divided into homogenous and heterogeneous databases. The system includes a multi-f ile system, controlled by a single, central DBMS.The benefits of distributed systems are flexible in the sense that they provide more security in case thereâs a fault in the system. Retrieving lost data is typically easier and faster in a distributed system. Often they also provide better access, as data can be accessed via multiple networks.The downside is that the creation of a distributed system can be more complex. These DBMSs are based on a hierarchical structure, making it harder to maintain data. Data redundancy can increase in a distributed system. Furthermore, since the data is scattered and provides multiple access points, securing the system can be harder.Column-oriented vs. row-oriented databasesFinally, DBMSs can differ in how the data is stored. In most instances, DBMSs are either column-oriented or row-oriented.The differences are more evident once you understand that relational databases typically provide data in a two-dimensional table. This database is essentiall y a selection of columns and rows. But in order to access this data, DBMSs have to use either a column-oriented or row-oriented approach of collecting the data. This means data is either read as a column format or a row format.Column-oriented databaseA column-oriented system means the data is stored as sections of columns of data. This means a single column consists of the values and datasets of that column and there can be a number of these columns within the database.Itâs typically used in database management dealing with data warehouses, clinical data and customer relationship management (CRM) systems. The approach is beneficial for these types of tasks because column-orientation helps normalize the data and read different data sets relating to the same field efficiently.But since a column-oriented database focuses on a whole column, the more complexity your data queries involve, the harder it can be to perform using this approach.Row-oriented databaseOn the other hand, a row-o riented database sees the data stored in sections of rows, rather than columns. The aim is to limit the effort in receiving data regarding a particular query. In fact, many relational database management systems tend to favor a row-oriented approach. For example, online shopping websites often use row-oriented databases for fetching product information.While this approach can provide data efficiently and quickly, it isnât efficient when you require the use of a whole dataset. For example, if you were looking for information over personnel earning a specific salary, gathering this data would take an enormous amount of time under a row-oriented approach.SELECTING A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMAs the above shows, there are a number of options available when it comes to database management systems. Whilst the main benefits of DBMSs remain the same, the tasks and needs of the user are essential in determining the right type of technology.Overall, when you are deciding on a DBMS, you shou ld consider these three aspects:The complexity of data â" if you are operating multi-file databases, you definitely want to consider using appropriate and the more complex DBMSs available. In fact, under these circumstances it might be a good idea to consider outsourcing your database management. On the other hand, if you are dealing with a single-file database, you are most likely able to manage it without a complex system or understanding of DBMS.The structure of data â" you also need to consider the way the data is structured. As the above showed, if you are looking for a DBMS for customer database management, a column-oriented software is better than row-oriented. It is important to determine not just how the data is stored, but also how youâll use it.The feature requirements â" naturally, you must also keep in mind feature requirements, such as operational requirements. Certain DBMSs donât operate on platforms such as Linux or Windows, while others could use a programmin g language you are not aware of. Furthermore, since certain approaches, such as distributed databases require much more from the hardware itself, it might not be a cost effective option for your business.Finally, you should consider the kind of development and support the DBMS provides for you. This is especially important for business users, as your needs might evolve as years go by. You donât want the DBMS to restrict your ability to upgrade later and additional software support can be crucial to ensure your business isnât damaged while you sort out the issues with the DBMS.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Introduction This paper analyses the stated fact pattern against the matrix of contract law with a view to answering the two specific questions posed. The questions both concern issues of contract formation. Pertinent case law and authority is applied in de constructing the scenarios and forming sound conclusions. I. Does Betty have an enforceable contract against QUES (Station)? It stands to reason that one of the formal components of any enforceable contract is a valid offer. It is submitted that Station made such an offer when it advertised that anyone who caught Big Bertha on hook and line and presented it to Station would be entitled to a $5,000 cash prize. It is settled law that competent offers may be made not only to a specificÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In these cases general offers were made to the world at large by means of advertisement , which were deemed accepted to create binding contracts by individuals who fulfilled the terms of those advertisements . The offer made and promulgated by Station is essentially a very simple one: 1. The fish, Big Bertha must be caught by hook and line. 2. The fish must thereafter be presented to Station. Leaving all peripheral circumstances aside, Betty has manifestly fulfilled these terms. Station s reason for refusing to pay Betty, because she had not actually participated in the contest but was merely on a social outing when she caught Big Bertha, is materially irrelevant. The original offer contained no stipulation, whether express or implied, concerning the need to engage in formal participation, or concerning the need to in some way register participation (or formally accept the offer). As in Carlill, it is submitted that performance of the terms of the offer will be deemed to constitute its legal acceptance (a rule of policy flowing from Williams v Carwardine (1833) ). Station has only itself to blame, if it wished to run the competition under more specific and formal terms regarding entry and participation, it need only have specified those terms ab initio in its advertisements. Summary On the facts presented, it is accordingly advised that Betty will be able to enforce Station s promise to pay $5000. II. Does Betty have an enforceable contract
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction In 1917 America entered World War one. By doing this America played a grave role in conquering Germany and ushering peace to Europe. However, the Great War also meant that the US would change dramatically through historical issues and changes which resulted in American society. Industries had started to realise that it was not as simple as it was before to abstract the immigrants. As the country developed and became more successful it attracted outsiders who were searching for chances. During the 1920Ã ¡Ã ¯s the United States began to confine immigrants due to cultural and economical purposes. The immigrants faced several afflictions such as: racism and religious oppression. The examination of immigration expressed an importantÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A perfect example of this is the Sacco-Vanzetti case. Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants in the United States. Sacco and Vanzetti were two workers who were arrested and charged with murder. There have b een people who claimed that they were guilty due to the fact that they were immigrants and outspoken anarchists. They were accused and blamed for something that they never did. There was no proof of evidence that they were guilty. It turned out that they were guilty of just being Italians. By using this case as an example racism tended to spread throughout America. It is stated that during the early 20th century the Italians received white received much lower wages than the average American. What can you observe from this? According to me you can tell that the immigrants were victimized against society. Eventually the Italians were accepted into American society. The Americans started to conceive that the Italians were no threat towards them or their society. Racism in American Society Immigration and racism often go together and they were closely related in American society in the 1920s. Not only was immigration a major problem in American society but racism had started to develop and increase after WWI. Not only was it the immigrants who were attacked by the Americans it was also the blacks, and the Jews. America is composed from severalShow MoreRelatedWas World War II A Good War? Essay1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWar is often a time of bloody battles and numerous casualties; on both sides of the playing field. World War II was one of the bloodiest wars in history; it not only involved the mass genocide of a specific group of people, but it also brought on major changes in America. As a result of the war, many opportunities would open up for women in the work force. When the men were off fighting the war, there was a need for employees to take over the jobs that the men had to do. The emergence of women inRead MoreThe World War II By Kenneth D. 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string(32) " teachers and absorb wisdomÃ¢â¬ \." Vol. 6, No. 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Overseas Education: Opportunities, Experience and Quality or any similar topic only for you Order Now ISSN: 1473-8376 www. heacademy. ac. uk/hlst/resources/johlste ACADEMIC PAPER Service Quality in Higher Education: The Experience of Overseas Students Maria Pereda (deceased) David Airey (d. airey@surrey. ac. uk) and Marion Bennett (m. bennett@surrey. ac. uk) Faculty of Management and Law, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH Ã ©Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education Abstract The higher education of students has become increasingly internationalised, with an evergrowing proportion of students originating from overseas. However, research to date suggests that overseas students are often less satisfied with their courses than other students. Consequently, there is a burgeoning need for universities to understand what students value in their university experience. This paper reports on a study that establishes and tests dimensions for measuring service quality in higher education, focusing on full-feepaying postgraduate students from non-EU countries at one institution in the UK. The institution concerned has a particular reputation in tourism and hospitality and a significant proportion of the respondents were studying these subjects. Adopting Lehtinen and LehtinenÃ¢â¬â¢s 1991 framework, a Q-sort was undertaken followed by factor analysis. The results of the research highlighted four factors of service quality: recognition; quality of instruction and interaction with faculty; sufficiency of resources; and aspects of physical quality. Arguably, the most significant finding here is the importance that these students attach to their institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. Keywords: Service quality; Higher education; International students Maria Pereda died in May 2006 shortly after completing her PhD thesis. The degree was awarded posthumously. A native of Venezuela, Maria graduated from Venezuela Central University and held an appointment at Simon Bolivar University in Caracas. She completed her MSc at the University of Surrey in 2000, focusing on tourism and hospitality education. This paper is based on her PhD research. David Airey is Professor of Tourism Management and Pro-Vice-Chancellor at the University of Surrey. He has spent 30 years involved in tourism education in various capacities: with government, with the European Commission and with universities. He is co-editor, with John Tribe, of the recently published International Handbook of Tourism Education. Marion Bennett is Associate Lecturer in Tourism and Marketing at the University of Surrey. She has held lecturer positions since 1991 with the Universities of Strathclyde and Surrey, where her interests have focused on information technology and marketing in relation to tourism distribution, heritage and air transport. Pereda, Airey and Bennett (2007) Service Quality in Overseas Education: The Experience of Overseas Students Introduction The education of full-fee-paying international students has become of major importance for universities in Western nations, particularly in major English speaking destination countries. Barron (2005: 353) has suggested that Ã¢â¬Å"international education is one of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest industriesÃ¢â¬ and that the fees generated by international students are important to the budgetary health of institutions. In the UK, according to HESA (2006) and UKCOSA (2004), about 320,000 or 13 per cent of students in 2004-2005 came from overseas, with about 10 per cent from outside the European Union (EU). This figure more than doubled from about 160,000 in 1994-1995. For some institutions, international students currently represent more than 25 per cent of their student population (UKCOSA, 2006). The main countries of domicile of international students in the UK are China (32,000 or 12 per cent) and Greece (9 per cent), with at least a further 20 countries each providing more than 2,500 students. As far as tourism is concerned, equivalent total figures (UCAS, 2006) suggest that overseas students represent about 16 per cent of acceptances onto programmes, rising from 11 per cent in 1996. Clearly this level of enrolment has represented a major opportunity for institutions, particularly at a time when public funding for higher education has been constrained; but it has also presented challenges. Barron (2005: 355) has pointed to the extent to which most universities have designated international departments responsible for marketing and recruitment, but goes on to highlight the need to ensure that such students are properly supported after arrival, providing evidence to suggest that this does not always happen, leading to frustration and disappointment. A recent report by the Higher Education Policy Institute (Bekhradnia et al. , 2006) confirms this, suggesting that non-EU overseas respondents were considerably less satisfied than others with the value for money received on their course. Against this background, it is clearly important for universities to understand what students value in their university experience, including those from overseas. It has been common practice for many years for higher education institutions to provide opportunities for students to evaluate their learning and teaching experience, typically in the form of end-of-semester or end-of-course evaluations. Many institutions also gain feedback from students about services such as the library or computing. A recent addition to these information sources in the UK has been the National Student Survey (NSS), which focuses on learning and teaching experiences. However, surveys of the overall experience or overall quality have been more rare (Aldridge and Rowley, 1998). This paper reports on a study (Pereda, 2006) that was designed to establish and test dimensions for measuring service quality in higher education, with specific reference to students following postgraduate taught programmes for master degrees, over one year, from countries outside the EU. Many of these were following programmes in tourism and hospitality. Specifically, the study aimed to identify from the literature three dimensions of service quality (physical, interactive and corporative), which were then validated with a Qsort. This provided the basis for a survey of 330 students at one institution in the UK, designed to measure their views of the quality of service received. This provides insights into the items that students value in their educational experience at this institution. It also provides a basis for redefining the dimensions of service quality. Service quality for international students The migration of international students is by no means a new phenomenon. Schachner (1962: 25), for example, refers to the students in medieval times who Ã¢â¬Å"poured in an increasing flood to the centres where they could literally sit at the feet of the great teachers and absorb wisdomÃ¢â¬ . You read "Overseas Education: Opportunities, Experience and Quality" in category "Essay examples" To some extent, the search for knowledge remains an important driver for international ovement in education today, but, in other ways, motives, influences and indeed origin and destination countries have changed radically. During the most recent and biggest expansion of international education, the USA, UK and Australia have become the main destination countries and the countries of South East Asia have joined those of Europe as large providers of students. The search for knowledge has been joined by a range of other Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education 6(2), 55 Ã¢â¬â 67 56 Pereda, Airey and Bennett (2007) Service Quality in Overseas Education: The Experience of Overseas Students factors in driving this growth. These include: the marketing campaigns of receiver universities; the perceived value of a foreign degree in terms of employment enhancement or Ã¢â¬Ësnob valueÃ¢â¬â¢; the absence of sufficient university places at home; government policy in relation to student fees; and more extraneous factors such as opportunities for emigration (Pereda, 2006). As far as individual institutions are concerned, Allen and Higgins (1994), from a study of 82 institutions in the UK, report that the most important factors for international students when selecting a university were academic reputation, course content and entry requirements. But perhaps the biggest change, driven in part by the need for Western universities to maintain numbers of international students, particularly where these pay full tuition fees, has been the recognition of such students as an important Ã¢â¬ËmarketÃ¢â¬â¢ that needs to be satisfied in an increasingly competitive world. Wright and OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill (2002), for example, point to the extent to which an assessment of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ perspectives has become a crucial requirement if universities are to remain competitive. More than 20 years ago, Glisan (1984) highlighted the special interest in overseas students, while Mortimer (1997) emphasised the need to examine and understand the decision-making process undertaken by these students and for institutions to respond to their needs. To this extent, universities have become increasingly involved in defining service quality and measuring customer satisfaction in ways that are familiar to service marketing specialists (Gronroos, 1984; Kotler, 1985), who themselves were developing measures of service quality from the 1980s. As noted by Patterson et al. (1998) and Conant et al. (1985), the most important customers, namely students and their parents, and the university providers have progressively changed towards a customer service orientation. Against this background, there has been a rapid expansion in the literature about this aspect of service quality. However, the way in which it has typically developed Ã¢â¬â by identifying the attributes from consultation with the students and then evaluating these (Bourke, 1997; Gatfield et al. , 1999; Joseph, 1998; Thompson and Thompson, 1996) Ã¢â¬â has meant that there has been a great diversity and lack of consistency in methodological strategies and in the variables employed to assess the service quality (Leonard et al. , 2003). Some researchers in education have used SERVQUAL, which is the most popular model to measure service quality, sometimes specifically adapted for the education sector (Wright and OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill, 2002; Gatfield, 2000). Orr (2000) identified five groups of organisational determinants of success in the provision of fee-paying graduate courses. Pate (1993) split the literature on student satisfaction into three perspectives: psychological-wellness-type satisfaction (related to personal characteristics); job-type satisfaction (related to future aspirations); and consumertype satisfaction (related to daily experience). However, the general picture is of a profusion and indeed a confusion of measured variables, some replicated across different studies, others unique to a particular study. In an initial attempt to understand the underlying patterns of service quality variables from these previous studies in higher education, a framework proposed by Lehtinen and Lehtinen (1991) was used. The framework was considered to offer a useful preliminary way to structure information relating to education as a service. Lehtinen and Lehtinen separately identified three dimensions of service quality: the physical quality (both products and support); the interactive quality (interaction between consumer and service provider); and the corporative quality (the image). Using these three dimensions, some 24 studies specifically related to quality in higher education were reviewed to establish whether these dimensions could be identified from the variables considered in earlier studies of higher education. For a dimension to exist it had to be included in more than three studies (Ekinci and Riley, 2001). The results and the studies are given in Table 1. From this it is clear that the physical quality dimension (general services, teaching and learning facilities, accommodation) and the interactive quality dimension (academic instruction, guidance, interaction with staff and students) are well included in the existing studies. The corporative quality dimension (recognition, reputation, value for money) is also present, but is less fully covered and mainly appears in papers concerned with marketing orientation (Bourke, 1995; Wilkinson, 1993). Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education 6(2), 55 Ã¢â¬â 67 7 Pereda, Airey and Bennett (2007) Service Quality in Overseas Education: The Experience of Overseas Students Study (author year) Mavondo et al. , 2004 Wiers-Jenssen, 2003 Wright and OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill, 2002 Elliot and Shin, 2002 Wiers-Jenssen et al. , 2002 Clemes et al. , 2001 Gatfield, 2000 Oldfield and Baron, 2000 Gatfield et al. , 1999 Ford et al. , 1999 Patterson et al. , 1998 Joseph, 1998 Aldridge and Rowley, 1998 Athiyaman, 1997 Bourke, 1997 Tomkovick et al. , 1996 Soutar and McNeil, 1996 Rogers and Smith, 1993 Hampton, 1993 Lapidus and Brown, 1993 Stewart, 1991 Ortinau et al. 1989 Polcyn, 1986 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Physical quality X Interactive quality X X X X X X X X X X X X X Corporative quality 22 22 8 Table 1: Higher Education Evaluation Matrix Physical quality Ã¢â¬â general services, teaching and learning facilities, accommodation Interactive quality Ã¢â¬â academic instruction, guidance, interaction with staff and students Corporative quality Ã¢â¬â recognition, reputation, value for money This study focused specifically on students from non-EU countries following postgraduate taught programmes. The fact that they are both international and postgraduate identifies them as a particular segment of the student market, and, as noted, it is one that has been showing significant growth and fee-earning potential. In many ways, their needs and responses are similar to those of other students but in significant ways they are also different. For example, as international students, the 2004 study by UKCOSA (2004) indicated that both postgraduates and undergraduates showed high levels of satisfaction with their academic experience (87 per cent), lthough, at 91 per cent, the undergraduates were rather more positive than their postgraduate counterparts at 85 per cent. This broad similarity is reflected in the other items included in the UKCOSA survey, with a notable exception that, at 85 per cent, undergraduates were more likely than postgraduates (65 per cent) to be offered university housing at the beginning of their stay. Other differences identified in the literature (Pereda, 2006) ar e that postgraduates are likely already to have been exposed to academic life, are older, with more work experience and experience of living independently. International students have similar issues to their domestic counterparts but additionally they face some specific issues, the most commonly cited being knowledge of English, inadequate financial resources, social adjustment, problems of daily living, loneliness and homesickness (Kennedy, 1995; Wilkinson, 1993; Burns, 1991; Samuelowicz, 1987). These, combined with the fact that they, or their families, are normally paying full fees, may partly explain the extent to which they are more critical of their experience and more demanding (Pereda, 2006). The study by the Higher Education Policy Institute (Bekhradnia et al. 2006) relating to English Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education 6(2), 55 Ã¢â¬â 67 58 Pereda, Airey and Bennett (2007) Service Quality in Overseas Education: The Experience of Overseas Students universities showed that nearly 30 per cent of such students found their courses represented poor value for money compared with 15 per cent of home and EU students. The fact that this study relates to this particular segment provides information about an important group, but the extent to which the results can be related to all international students or to students in general needs to be tempered by these differences. Methodology Having reached a point of identifying from the literature the ingredients of and preliminary structure for service quality in higher education, the research strategy was developed to identify statements and dimensions that would capture the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences of service quality and to measure these at a particular institution with a large cohort of international students. The students included in the survey were all from non-EU countries taking taught master degree courses, typically over one year, in different aspects of management. Admittedly, this approach contains limitations, being confined to particular students studying a particular group of courses at one institution. The advantage of this approach was partly one of convenience and logistics, but also that it permitted the identification of a sufficiently large and coherent group of students with roughly similar experiences, hence avoiding differences between institutions, subjects, ages and experience. The institution concerned is based in the South of England and achieved university status in the 1960s. It has a strong research reputation as well as strong links with the world of work. Specifically for this study it has a long-standing and strong international reputation for hospitality and tourism education. It regularly ranks as one of the leading centres both for teaching and research in these areas, and is one of only two institutions in the UK accredited by the UN World Tourism Organisation. It has a developing reputation for other management programmes, with recent accreditations by the American body, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) and the Association of MBAs (AMBA), placing it among leading business schools. For more than 20 years it has attracted a large number of international students, and currently more than 90 per cent of its postgraduate students in management are from outside the UK. A dedicated international office provides specific support for these international students. The fieldwork was organised into two main parts. First, a Q-sort was used to establish the validity of the three dimensions and to establish statements related to the dimensions. A selection of these statements was then used both to explore the response of international students to their experience and to conduct an exploratory factor analysis, which ultimately identified four factors of service quality. Q-technique has its origins in the work of Stephenson (1935; 1953) and provides researchers with a systematic and orderly means for identifying the dimensions of subjective phenomena from the viewpoints and experiences of individuals. In brief, it attempts to convert subjective responses into measurable dimensions, which can then be formally evaluated by statistical applications. To this extent it is a preliminary method. It makes the study of human subjectivity amenable to Ã¢â¬Ëobjective analysisÃ¢â¬â¢, hence combining the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative research (Sexton et al. , 1998). This versatile procedure is well suited to cases where the existence of concepts has not been established (Ekinci and Riley, 2001). The evaluation of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences comes into this category and was used here as a first step. Stergiou (2004) had earlier, and for similar reasons, followed this approach in relation to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ views about teaching. The Q-sort was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, a bank of statements was created to represent the dimensions suggested by Lehtinen and Lehtinen (1991). The initial set of statements was generated from previous questionnaires in the area of higher education, including unpublished dissertations (Leonard et al. , 2003), as well as from discussions with researchers in related areas. An initial pilot test was conducted with five subjects in order to check the instructions and any wording problems with the statements that Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education 6(2), 55 Ã¢â¬â 67 9 Pereda, Airey and Bennett (2007) Service Quality in Overseas Education: The Experience of Overseas Students were generated. For the first Q-sort, a total of 104 statements were used, related to physical quality (34 statements), interactive quality (38 statements) and corporative quality (32 statements). Respondents for the study were confined to students enrolled in a postgra duate programme at the researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ university for at least one semester. The experience in the university is a basic requirement to evaluate the service. The Q-sort was completed by a total of 30 students from 28 different countries, including two from the UK, six from other EU countries and 22 from other parts of the world. These students were asked to sort the statements, which had been printed onto separate cards, into the three dimensions and then, for each group of statements, to classify them into: Ã¢â¬Ëmost importantÃ¢â¬â¢ (the kind of service you would expect to have); Ã¢â¬Ëleast importantÃ¢â¬â¢; and Ã¢â¬Ënot relevantÃ¢â¬â¢. In order to qualify, a statement needed to be allocated to the same heading by at least 60 per cent of the sample (Ekinci and Riley, 2001; Hinkin and Schriesheim, 1989) and a minimum f four qualified statements was required to validate the existence of a dimension. The result of this Q-sort was a set of 85 validated statements distributed as follows: physical quality 38; interactive quality 29; corporative quality 18. For the second Q-sort, in order to have a better balanced representation amon g the three dimensions, the best 20 statements that obtained a degree of consensus of 70 per cent or more were used for the first two dimensions, physical quality and interactive quality. However, further adjustments were also made both to avoid omitting likely determinants of student satisfaction Ã¢â¬â for example, library services Ã¢â¬â and to remove statements that essentially had the same meaning. For corporative quality, which only achieved 18 validated statements, three of which did not reach the cut-off of 70 per cent, five new statements were added. Hence, the second Q-sort took place with 60 statements, 20 related to each dimension. The respondents for this second round were 30 non-British full-fee-paying students enrolled on PhD (12) and master (18) degree programmes in different departments of the university. They were asked to sort the cards in the same way as in the first Q-sort. The output from this round was a set of 59 validated statements. One item was rejected from corporative quality. The second stage of the study involved further exploration of the statements to establish how they impacted on student views of the quality of service provided and how well they confirmed the existence of the three dimensions. For this, a research instrument was implemented with students taking taught postgraduate master level programmes at the institution. The final response was from 330 students taking a range of programmes in management and related areas. Eighty-four of these were on programmes related to hospitality and tourism, although it should be noted that this underestimates such students because a number of them identified themselves as studying Ã¢â¬ËmanagementÃ¢â¬â¢, omitting to mention their particular specialism. All were overseas students paying full fees. The research instrument was distributed personally in spring 2005, in most cases at the end of classes, and self-completed in the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s presence. Forty statements in total were used from the second Q-sort to measure student views of the quality of service. Fifteen of these related to physical quality, 11 to interactive quality and 14 to corporative quality. The statements are given in Table 2. Physical quality The gardens and open areas on the campus are kept clean StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ rooms are provided ith adequate internet connections The classrooms have up-to-date teaching support equipment The university has modern computers with the latest programmes Student accommodation is safe The university has sufficient residential accommodation The library has a wide range of book and periodicals in my area of studies The rooms in the student residential accommodation are comfortable Mean 5. 22 5. 14 5. 10 5. 06 4. 66 4. 66 4. 57 4. 55 SD 1. 17 1. 90 1. 05 1. 30 1. 31 1. 41 1. 51 1. 28 Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education 6(2), 55 Ã¢â¬â 67 60 Pereda, Airey and Bennett (2007) Service Quality in Overseas Education: The Experience of Overseas Students Adequate printer facilities are available The campus computers are sufficient for the student population The communal areas in each student residence are adequate for the number of students The university has plenty of sports facilities The sport centre offers modern equipment The university offers modern accommodation at affordable prices The university provides adequate parking areas for students Interactive quality My course is intellectually challenging Staff react politely to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ queries It is easy to make friends on campus The administrative staff are helpful Lecturers stimulate critical analysis There are clear and reasonable requirements for each module Lecturers can be easily contacted individually It is easy to get involved in campus social organisations Lecturers have adequate time for consultation Feedback from coursework is adequate It is easy to inter act with local students Corporative quality The university takes the lead in research A degree from this university improves my employment prospects The university maintains links with international education networks A degree from this university is well recognised internationally The university is well recognised for the academic programmes The university offers a high quality of teaching performance The ranking of my school is high Graduates from this university achieve considerable success in finding excellent employment A degree from this university has an excellent reputation in my home country The university maintains excellent links with local industry The university has contacts ith international employers The university has been extensively recommended by my friends in my home country Lecturers in my home country recommended this university to me There are excellent links between my home country and this university Table 2: StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ views of the quality of service provided 7= strongly agree; 1= strongly disagree 4. 85 4. 85 4. 70 4. 69 4. 66 4. 57 4. 57 4. 45 4. 32 4. 23 4. 18 3. 92 3. 84 3. 45 1. 04 1. 02 1. 16 1. 14 1. 20 1. 17 1. 32 1. 20 1. 38 1. 33 1. 29 1. 37 1. 48 1. 30 5. 02 4. 71 4. 70 4. 60 4. 56 4. 55 4. 48 4. 35 4. 28 4. 23 3. 62 1. 04 1. 19 1. 23 1. 32 1. 19 1. 10 1. 19 1. 28 1. 22 1. 12 1. 50 4. 43 4. 31 4. 29 4. 20 4. 17 3. 94 3. 70 1. 38 1. 41 1. 45 1. 36 1. 32 1. 33 1. 48 A seven-point Likert scale was used for this purpose, and respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with the statements relating to their experience. The instrument also collected data on satisfaction, value for money and demographics. These are not reported here. The analysis included the preparation of descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations against various independent variables, and exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation. An Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education 6(2), 55 Ã¢â¬â 67 61 Pereda, Airey and Bennett (2007) Service Quality in Overseas Education: The Experience of Overseas Students overall Cronbach alpha coefficient of . 875, results from more than 300 respondents, a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy of more than . 0 and the BartlettÃ¢â¬â¢s test results all gave support that the set of data was adequate for factor analysis, with a factor loading of . 35. Results and discussion The s tudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ views on the quality of service provided under the three dimensions are given in Table 2. These, together with the reasons for enrolling in the particular programme presented in Table 3, provide an indication of the elements of service quality that are of importance to these international students. The reputation and content, including the English language provision, of the programme are clearly important to the students in making their decisions about where to study. Reason Degree accepted internationally English language spoken Content of the course Reputation of this university back home Facilities Entry requirement Getting an offer of a place Influence of friends/family Know someone studying there Degree not available at home Scholarship award SponsorÃ¢â¬â¢s decision Level of fees Difficulty of getting into university at home Table 3: Reasons for enrolling No (n=308) 184 152 142 103 91 63 62 54 52 52 42 19 13 11 The most important finding of the research to be reported here was that the factor analysis did not entirely support the structure proposed by Lehtinen and Lehtinen. Indeed, as set out in Table 4, four dimensions are identified, and of these, Factor 1 is by far the most important, accounting for the largest proportion of the variance (34 per cent), with eigenvalues greater than 3. 00 (6. 156). This factor includes a group of statements related to research, rigour and reputation, and is labelled here Ã¢â¬ËrecognitionÃ¢â¬â¢. Factors 1 Factor 1: recognition The ranking of my school is high (corporative quality) A degree from this university is well recognised internationally (corporative quality) The university takes the lead in research (corporative quality) A degree from this university has an excellent reputation in my home country (corporative quality) My course is intellectually challenging (interactive quality) Factor 2: quality of instruction and interaction with faculty Lecturers have adequate time for consultation (interactive quality) . 765 . 772 . 702 . 659 . 652 . 609 2 3 4 Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education 6(2), 55 Ã¢â¬â 67 62 Pereda, Airey and Bennett (2007) Service Quality in Overseas Education: The Experience of Overseas Students Lecturers can be easily contacted individually (interactive quality) There are clear and reasonable requirements for each module (interactive quality) Lecturers stimulate critical analysis (interactive quality) Feedback from coursework is adequate (interactive quality) Factor 3: sufficiency of resources The campus computers are sufficient for the student population (physical quality) Adequate printer facilities are available (physical quality) The communal areas in each student residence are adequate for the number of students (physical quality) The university has sufficient residential accommodation (physical quality) Factor 4: quality of facilities The university has plenty of sport facilities (physical quality) The sports centre has modern equipment (physical quality) The classrooms have up-to-date teaching support equipment (physical quality) The gardens and open areas on c ampus are kept clean (physical quality) . 863 . 802 . 526 . 483 . 724 . 689 . 657 . 642 . 758 . 663 . 611 . 454 Eigenvalue 6. 156 1. 527 1. 375 1. 72 Explained variance by factor (%) 34. 199 8. 481 7. 640 7. 069 Table 4: Service quality scale: factor loading structure Extraction method: principle component analysis. Rotation method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalisation. Rotation converged in five iterations To some extent this reflects how the university positions itself as a demanding and competitive body. The other three factors did not reach eigenvalues of 3. 00, and the percentage variance together only accounts for 23 per cent of the total. The second factor roughly relates to Lehtinen and LehtinenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëinteractive qualityÃ¢â¬â¢ and here is labelled Ã¢â¬Ëquality of instruction and interaction with facultyÃ¢â¬â¢. The items here emphasise the importance of the lecturer in his or her intrinsic role as a teacher, willing to guide, teach and motivate students. The variables included in this factor also provide evidence of the responsibilities of the lecturer towards the students in terms of providing clear instructions, accurate and punctual feedback and private consultation. Factor 3 includes four items from Ã¢â¬Ëphysical qualityÃ¢â¬â¢, and although they only explain 7. 64 per cent of the common variance, all the items have high loadings, ranging from . 642 to . 724. Interestingly, they all relate to the adequate provision of services by the university and hence are labelled here Ã¢â¬Ësufficiency of resourcesÃ¢â¬â¢. The last factor, although composed of four items from Ã¢â¬Ëphysical qualityÃ¢â¬â¢, does not show a clear pattern Ã¢â¬â two of the items refer to sport facilities (both of which have high loadings), the modernity of classroom facilities and cleanliness of the campus. This recasting of the dimensions provides an interesting step in translating service quality thinking into the arena of higher education. In particular, it emphasises the point that the provision of services is not only about the actual facilities (classrooms, computers, etc) and the ways in which they are delivered (by the teachers), both of which find correspondence in any service; it also highlights the fact that there is another, in this case overriding, dimension for students in the ways in which they judge their institution. This is the standing or recognition of the university, which in itself is a combination of achievements often over many years in the wide range of activities covered by universities Ã¢â¬â teaching, research, invention and knowledge creation. In the case of this particular study, this may be partly explained by the fact that the institution concerned has an outstanding and long-established reputation for Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education 6(2), 55 Ã¢â¬â 67 63 Pereda, Airey and Bennett (2007) Service Quality in Overseas Education: The Experience of Overseas Students tourism and hospitality studies, and a significant proportion of the respondents were taking these programmes. In the same way, ancient universities, some with histories over many centuries, offer Ã¢â¬ËreputationÃ¢â¬â¢ as a key element in attracting students. This Ã¢â¬ËrecognitionÃ¢â¬â¢ dimension, of course, also finds expression in other services and goods, but arguably its explanatory strength for universities in distinguishing between institutions, particularly for overseas students, is more powerful than in other areas. It is difficult to generalise from this to all universities. Given the rapid expansion of the sector in recent years, there has been little time for many institutions to have developed their reputations. This may explain why in earlier studies (Gatfield et al. , 1999; Tomkovick et al. , 1996) which have included Ã¢â¬ËreputationÃ¢â¬â¢ it has not consistently appeared as the most important factor. Indeed, Ã¢â¬Ëacademic instructionÃ¢â¬â¢ has more typically explained most of the variance (Gatfield, 2000; Elliot and Shin, 2002; Patterson et al. , 1998). However, what it does point to potentially is the sheer importance of reputation once it has been achieved and, as a corollary, the imperative to maintain reputation. Against this background, league tables and world rankings take on a crucial role and hence become a vital part of the development and survival strategy for institutions in an increasingly competitive world. As international recruitment and international competition in higher education increases, this is likely to figure increasingly prominently in the strategies of universities. Conclusion Three important issues come out of this work in relation to the things that students value in their university experience. First, in line with previous studies, the evaluation of higher education includes a complex and diverse range of variables, from classroom experience to library and computing provision, from social and sporting activities to international recognition. Second, the work in measuring service quality provides a good starting point for understanding the basic structure of the variables that students take into account in evaluating their experience. And third, there is, at least for some universities, including the one where the study took place, a fourth dimension related to reputation; in this case, a reputation in hospitality and tourism may have influenced the results. This then points to a key feature of higher education provision, which is that universities are not a uniform range of institutions. They vary enormously by, for example, age, size, structure, specialism and orientation, and any form of evaluation will be likely to reflect these differences. In this case, it is reputation and recognition that has come through. In other universities and with other student groups there may well be other dimensions in the variables. This study was based on one institution and sought the views of the international, postgraduate, full-fee-paying students who had already taken a decision about where to study, and the configuration of the variables reflects this. Primarily, it has brought the reputation of the institution into prominence; but it has also provided a further basis for understanding the issues that international students value. Given the likely continued growth in international student movements, there are key lessons here for institutions, not least in the importance of developing and maintaining reputation. As already noted, in an environment of globalisation, international competition and league tables, reputation is likely to increase in importance. Of course, given the sample of a particular group of students studying particular subjects at one institution, there are some important limitations in the extent to which it is possible to generalise the results. However, notwithstanding this weakness, both the approach and the findings in terms of the key variables and dimensions provide pointers o approaches to understanding the views of students and the ways in which this important group of students view their experience. There are clearly many further avenues for research in this area. A wider range of institutions with different priorities, a wider range of subject areas and coverage of undergraduate an d domestic students would all provide further insights to the views of students about their Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education 6(2), 55 Ã¢â¬â 67 64 Pereda, Airey and Bennett (2007) Service Quality in Overseas Education: The Experience of Overseas Students experiences and about the dimensions that they value. But perhaps most important for tourism and hospitality specialists would be a specific focus on students studying these subjects. While they are a significant cohort among the students included in the survey, and this study can provide pointers, their number was not sufficient to draw final conclusions about their particular characteristics, if any. This work remains to be done. References Aldridge, S. and Rowley, J. (1998) Measuring CustomersÃ¢â¬â¢ Satisfaction in Higher Education. Quality Assurance in Education, 6, 197-204. 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Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education 6(2), 55 Ã¢â¬â 67 67 How to cite Overseas Education: Opportunities, Experience and Quality, Essay examples
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Nurses prepared at the baccalaureate-level were linked with lower mortality and failure-to-rescue rates. The authors conclude that moving to a nurse workforce in which a higher proportion of staff nurses have at least a baccalaureate-level education would result in substantially fewer adverse outcomes for patients. Effects of Hospital Care Environment on Patient Mortality and Nurse Outcomes In a study published May 2008 in the Journal of Nursing Administration, (see below) which show a strong link between RN education level and patient outcomes. Titled Effects of Hospital Care Environment on Patient Mortality and Nurse Outcomes, these leading nurse researchers found that every 10% increase in he proportion of BSN nurses on the hospital staff was associated with a 4% decrease in the risk of death. Impact of Hospital Nursing Care on 30-day Mortality for Acute Medical Patients In the January 2007 issue of the Journal of Advanced Nursing, a new study validates the findings of Dr. Linda Aiken and others that baccalaureate- prepared nurses have a positive impact on lowering mortality rates. A research team led by Dr. Ann E. Tourangeau from the University of Toronto and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences in Ontario, Canada, studied 46,993 patients admitted to ospital with heart attacks, stroke, pneumonia and blood poisoning. The authors found that: Hospitals with higher proportions of baccalaureate-prepared nurses tended to have lower 30-day mortality rates. Our findings indicated that a 10% increase in the proportion of baccalaureate prepared nurses was associated with 9 fewer deaths for every 1,000 discharged patients. Is the Shortage of Hospital Registered Nurses Getting Better of Worse? In the March-April 2005 issue of Nursing Economics, Dr. Peter Buerhaus and colleagues found that more than 75% of RNs believe the nursing shortage presents a major problem for the quality of their work ife, the quality of patient care, and the amount of time nurses can spend with patients. Looking forward, almost all surveyed nurses see the shortage in the future as a cata lyst for increasing stress on nurses (98%), lowering patient care quality (93%) and causing nurses to leave the profession (93%). National Survey on Consumers Experiences with Patient Safety and Quality Information In November 2004, results from this national survey found that 40% of Americans think the quality of health care has worsened in the last five years. Consumers reported that the most mportant issues affecting medical error rates are workload, stress or fatigue among health professionals (74%); too little time spent with patients (70%); and too few nurses (69%). This survey was sponsored by the Kaiser Family Foundation, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Harvard School of Public Health. Research in Action: Hospital Nurse Staffing and Availability of Care In March 2004, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) issued a synthesis of nursing research studies that details the impact that staffing levels, staff mix, and education levels have on patient outcomes. The report cites studies showing that hospitals with lower nurse staffing levels and fewer registered nurses compared with licensed practical nurses or nurses aides tend to have higher rates of poor patient outcomes. Keeping Patients Safe: Transforming the Work Environment Publishing in November 2003, this Institute of Medicine calls for substantial changes in the work environment of nurses in order to protect patients, including changes in how nurse staffing levels are established and mandatory limits on nurses work hours. Despite the growing body of evidence that better nurse staff levels result in afer patient care, nurses in some health care facilities may be overburdened with up to 12 patients to care for per shift. Long work hours pose one of the most serious threats to patient safety, because fatigue slows reaction time, diminishes attention to detail, and contributes to errors. Educational Levels of Hospital Nurses and Surgical prepared at the baccalaureate and higher degree level is endangering patients. In an article in the September 24, 2003 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, Dr. Linda Aiken and her colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania ound that patients experience significantly lower mortality and failure to rescue rates in hospitals where more baccalaureate-prepared nurses provide direct patient care. At least 1,700 preventable deaths could have been realized in Pennsylvania hospitals alone if baccalaureate-prepared nurses had comprised 60% of the nursing staff and the nurse-to-patient ratios had been set at 1 to 4. Unfortunately, only of PA hospitals have more than 50% of the nursing staff prepared at the baccalaureate level. Views of Practicing Physicians and the Public on Medical Errors A survey eported in the December 12, 2002 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine found that 53% of physicians and 65% of the public cited the shortage of nurses as a leading cause of medical errors. Overall, 42% of the public and more than a third of U. S. doctors reported that they or their family members have experienced medical errors in the course of receiving medical care. The survey was conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Hospital Nurse Staffing and Patient Mortality, Nurse Burnout and Job Dissatisfaction According o a study published in the October 23/30, 2002 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, more nurses at the bedside could save thousands of patient lives each year. Nurse researchers at the University of Pennsylvania determined that patients who have common surgeries in hospitals with low nurse-to-patient ratios have an up to 31% increased chance of dying. Funded by the National Institute for Nursing Research, the study found that every additional patient in an average hospital nurses workload increased the risk of death in surgical patients by 7%. Having too few nurses may actually cost more money given the high costs of replacing burnt-out nurses and caring for patients with poor outcomes.